110 VIP Drive, Wexford, PA 15090

Research from TLC


At Total Learning Centers, we use research to build all of our programs.  Below we’ve provided citations and links to just some of the research that has influenced each of our programs.

Please note:  If the research is not linked, it is not available publicly online.  To access articles that do not contain a link, please check with your public library databases. The Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh also has amazing resources as does the Bookmobile that visits TLC every Friday. Come join us!

Working Memory

Auditory Processing

  • Ball, E.W., & Blachman, B.A. (1991). Does phoneme segmentation training in kindergarten make a difference in early word recognition and developmental spelling? Reading Research Quarterly, 26, 49-66.
  • Blachman, B.A. (1991) Getting ready to read: Learning how print maps to speech. In J.F. Kavanagh (Ed.), The language continuum: From infancy to literacy (pp. 41-62). Timonium, MD: York Press.
  • Blachman, B.A., Ball, E.W., Black, R.S., & Tangel, D.M. (1994) Kindergarten teachers develop phoneme awareness in low-income, inner-city classrooms: Does it make a difference? Reading and Wrigin, 6, 1-18.
  • Bradley, L. & Bryant, P.E. (1983). Categorizing sounds and learning to read: A causal connection. Nature, 301, 419-421.
  • Byrne, B., & Fielding-Barnsley, R. (1991). Evaluation of a program to teach phonemic awareness to young children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 451-455.
  • Byrne, B., & Fielding-Barnsley, R. (1993). Evaluation of a program to teach phonemic awareness to young children: A 1-year follow-up. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 104-111.
  • Byrne, B., & Fielding-Barnsley, R. (1995). Evaluation of a program to teach phonemic awareness to young children: A 2- and 3-year follow-up and a new preschool trial. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, 488-503.
  • Byrne, B., & Ledez, J. (1983). Phonolgical awareness in reading disabled adults. Australian Journal of Psychology, 35, 185-197.
  • Calfee, R.C., Lindamood, P.E., & Lindamood, C.H. (1973). Acoustic-phonetic skills and reading: Kindergarten through 12th grade. Journal of Educational Psychology, 64, 293-298.
  • Cardaso-Martins, C. (1995). Sensitivity to rhymes, syllables, and phonemes in literacy acquisition in Portuguese. Reading Research Quarterly, 30, 808-828.
  • Castle, J.M., Riach, J., & Nichsolson, T. (1994). Getting off to a better start in reading and spelling: The effects of phonemic awareness instruction within a whole-language program. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 350-359.
  • Cossu, G., Shankweiler, D., Liberman, I.Y., Tola, G., & Katz, L. (1998). Awareness of phonolgical segments and reading ability in Italian children. Applied Psycholinguistics, 9, 1-16.
  • Cunningham, A.E. (1990). Explicit versus implicit instruction in phonemic awareness. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 50, 429-444.
  • Foorman, B.R., Francis, D.J., Beeler, T., Winikates, D., & Fletcher, J.M. (1997). Early interventions for children with reading problems: Study designs and preliminary findings. Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 8, 63-71.
  • Foorman, B.R., Francis, D.J., Fletcher, J.M., Winikates, D., & Mehta, P. (1997). Early interventions for children with reading problems. Scientific Studies of Reading, 1(3), 255-276.
  • Foorman, B.R., Francis, D.J., Shaywitz, S.E., Shaywitz, B.A., & fletcher, J.M. (1997). The case for early reading interventions. In B. Blachman (Ed.), Foundations of reading acquisition and dyslexia: Implications for early intervention (pp. 243-264). Mahwah, JH: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Fromkin, V. & Rodman, R. (1993). An introduction to language (4th ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
  • Hatcher, P.J., Hulme, C., & Ellis, A.W. (1994). Ameliorating early reading failure by integrating the teaching of reading and phonological skills: The phonological linkage hypothesis. Child Development, 65, 41-57.
  • Hull, M. (1995). Phonics for the teacher of reading (4th ed.). Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.
  • Juel, C. (1991). Beginning reading. In R. Barr, M.L. Kamil, P.B. Mosenthal, & P.D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 2, pp 759-788). New York: Longman.
  • Liberman, I.Y., Rubin, H., Duques, S., & Carlisle, J. (1985). Linguistic abilities and spelling proficiency in kindergartners and adult poor spellers. In D.B. Gray & J.F. Kavanagh (Eds.), Biobehavioural measures of dyslexia (pp. 163-176). Timonium, MD: York Press.
  • Lindamood, C., & Lindamood, P. (1975). The A.D.D. Program: Auditory Discrimination in Depth. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
  • Lundberg, I., Frost, J., & Peterson, O.P. (1988). Effects of an extensive program for stimulating phonological awareness in preschool children. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 264-284.
  • Lundberg, I., Olofsson, A., & Wall, S. (1980). Reading and spelling skills in the first school years predicted from phonemic awareness skills in kindergarten. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 21, 159-173.
  • Marcel, A. (1980). Phonological awareness and phonological representation: Investigation of a specific spelling problem. In U. Frith (Ed.), Cognitive processes in spelling (pp. 373-403). New York: Academic Press.
  • Moats, L.C. (1995). Spelling: Development, disability, and instruction. Timonium, MD: York Press.
  • Morais, J., Cary, L., Alegria, J., & Bertelson, P. (1979). Does awareness of speech as a sequence of phonemes arise spontaneously? Cognition, 7, 323-331.
  • Parker, F., & Riley, K. (1994). Linguistics for non-linguists: A primer with exercises (2nd ed.). Needham, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
  • Stanovich, K.E. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 360-406.
  • Treiman, R. (1993). Beginning to spell: A study of first grade children. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Tunmer, W.E., & Nesdale, A.R. (1985). Phonemic segmentation skill and beginning reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 417-427.
  • Wagner, R., Torgesen, J.K., & Rashotte, C.A. (1994). Development of reading-related phonological processing abilities: New evidence of bidirectional causality from a latent variable longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology: 30, 73-87.
  • Wallach, L., Wallach, M.A., Dozier, M.G., & Kaplan, N.E. (1977). Poor children learning to read do not have trouble with auditory discrimination but do have trouble with phoneme recognition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 36-39.
  • Wallach, M.A., & Wallach, L. (1979). Helping disadvantaged children learn to read by teaching them phoneme identification skills. In L.A. Resnick & P.A. Weaver (Eds.), Theory and practice of early reading (Vol. 3, pp. 227-259). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Williams, J.P. (1980). Teaching decoding with a special emphasis on phoneme analysis and phoneme blending. Journal of Educational Psychology, 72, 1-15.

Processing Speed


Research on mindfulness is relatively new but not so with research related to other attention training. For example back in 1979, research published in the Journal of Special Education showed how training auditory sequential memory and attention (aspects of Cognitive Educational Therapy) positively affected reading. The following is a sampling of additional research related to improving attention:

  • Dowsett, S. M., & Livesey, D. J. (2000). The development of inhibitory control in preschool children: effects of “executive skills” training. Developmental Psychobiology, 36(2), 161-174.
  • Fan, J., McCandliss, B. D., Sommer, T., Raz, A., & Posner, M. I. (2002). Testing the efficiency and independence of attentional networks. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14(3), 340-347.
  • Gray, J. M., & Robertson, I. H. (1989). Remediation of attentional difficulties following brain injury: Three experimental single case studies. Brain Injury, 3, 163-170.
  • Kerns, K. A., Eso, K., & Thompson, J. (1999). Investigation of a direct intervention for improving attention in young children with ADHD. Developmental Neuropsychology, 16, 273-295.
  • Rumbaugh, D. M., & Washburn, D. A. (1995). Attention and memory in relation to learning: A comparative adaptation perspective. In G. R. L. N. A. Krasnegor (Ed.), Attention, memory and executivefunction (pp. 199-219). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
  • Sohlberg, M. M., & Mateer, C. A. (1987). Effectiveness of an attention-training program. Journal of Clinical Experimental Neuropsychology, 9(2), 117-130.
  • Thomson, J. B., Seidenstrang, L., Kerns, K. A., Sohlberg, M. M., & Mateer, C. A. (1984). Pay Attention! Puyallup, WA: Asssociation for Neuropyschological Research and Development.
  • Williams, D. J. (1989). A process-specific training program in the treatment of attention deficits in children.University of Washington, Seattle.

Cogmed Research Abstracts

Want to know more about the research behind our programs? Contact us!

Call Now!